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 الأفعال المركبة في اللغة الإنجليزية PHRASAL VERBS

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
أ. حليمة العواد



عدد المساهمات : 17
تاريخ التسجيل : 19/11/2014

مُساهمةموضوع: الأفعال المركبة في اللغة الإنجليزية PHRASAL VERBS   السبت مارس 26, 2016 5:43 pm

الأفعال المركبة في اللغة الإنجليزية PHRASAL VERBS


phrasal verbs شرح




شرح قاعدة phrasal verbs

phrasal verbs بالعربية




Phrasal verbs هي كلمة تطلق على أفعال يضاف إليها أحرف جر مما يؤدي إلى تغيير معنى الفعل كلياً. مثلاً، الفعل call يعني ينادي و لكن عندما أضفنا حرف الجر off للفعل call أصبحت عبارة call off تعني يلغي. phrasal verbs يطلق عليها أيضا إسم two-word verbs أو three-word verbs








تُستخدم الأفعال المركبة في المحادثة والكتابة وتُعتبر جزءاً من المصطلحات . وتتكون الأفعال المُركبة من ( فعل ) و ( حرف جر ) وغالباً ما يوجد معاني مقابلة لها من الأفعال غير المركبة مثل :





يُلغي ............ call off ............... cancel

يكتشف ......... find out ...........discover

يًكرر ثانية ...... do over............. repeat









وعند استخدام هذه الأفعال يتم فصلها عن المفعول به سواء كان اسم أو ضمير شرط القدرة على التحكم في ذلك الاسم مثل أن نلتقط شيئاً من الأرض أو نفتح مفتاح الكهرباء أو نغلقه , كما يلي :





( فعل مركب قابل للفصل )





switch on the light

switch the light on

switch it on






مثال أخر





He picked up the pen

He picked the pen up

He picked it up






أما في حالة عدم قدرتنا على التحكم في الإسم , فإننا لا نستطيع فصل المفعول به سواء كان اسم او ضمير عن حرف الجر حيث يأتي حرف الجر بعد الفعل مباشرة , كما يلي :





( فعل مركب غير قابل للفصل )








I climbed up the ladder

I climbed up it






مثال أخر





He got off the car

He got off it








http://english-courses-level.com/english-beginners-level-videos/page/3
























1) ask out
ask someone to go on a date: يطلب من شخص موعدا للخروج سويا
We've been asked out to dinner twice this week

2) bring about, bring on
cause يسبب
Land reform brought about a great change in the lives of the common people
This incident will surely bring on a crisis.

3) bring up
rear children (a يربي أولاد
Every mother has to bring up her children properly

mention or introduce a topic (b يفتح أو يبدأ موضوع (للحديث)
The students brought up the question of racial discrimination in class

4) bring off
to accomplish ينجز
The manager brought off a big business deal

5) call back
return a telephone call يعاود الاتصال
The actor was called back for a second audition

6) call in
to call upon for consultation; ask for help يطلب للاستشارة أو المساعدة
Two specialists were called in to assist in the operation

7) call off
to cancel (something) that had been planned for a certain date يلغي شيئا كان قد حدد له موعد
The performance was called off because of rain

8)call on
to visit يزرو
I like to call on friends

9) call up
to communicate or try to communicate with by telephone يتصل بأحد على التليفون
I will call him up to ask about his health

10) catch up with
reach the same level pr position يصل لنفس المستوى أو المركز
They tried to catch up with the leader in a race

11) check in, check into
to register, as at a hotel يسجل حضور أو يحجز في فندق مثلا
We checked in at the reception desk

12) check out
take a book from a library (a يأخذ كتاب من المكتبة (للاستعارة)
This book was checked out in your name

investigate (b يدقق أو يفحص
The policeman checked out the validity of the driving license

13) check out of
leave a hotel يغادر الفندق (يسجل خروج)
We checked out of the hotel this morning

14) cheer up
make (someone) feel happier يُفرح أو يسعد
This fine weather should cheer you up

15) clean up
to wash or tidy up ينظف و يرتب
The maid cleaned up the house after the party

16) come across
meet by chance يلتقي صدفة
I came across this picture when I was cleaning out the attic

17) cut out
stop an annoying activity يوقف أو ينهي شيء مزعج
Let's cut out the talking and get back to work

18) cut down
to lessen; decrease يخفف أو يقلل
The doctors have told me to cut down on between-meal snacks

19) cut in
to drive into a space between cars in a dangerous way likely to cause an accident يقود بين سيارتين بشكل خطير قد يسبب حادث
A speeding car cut in and nearly caused a crash

20) cut off
to stop suddenly; disconnect يتوقف فجأة أو يفصل
We were cut off in the middle of our telephone conversation

21) cut up
to cut into pieces or sections يقطع إلى قطع صغيرة
The butcher cut up the chicken into small cubes

22) do over
do again يعيد العمل
Tom was not satisfied with the work so he did it over and over until it was good

23) do without
dispense with يستغني عن
The store doesn't have any lemons, so you'll have to do without

24) drop by, drop in
To stop in for a short visit يقوم بزيارة خاطفة أو سريعة
Drop in and and see us when you're come to London

25) drop off
To decrease يقل أو ينقص
Sales dropped off in the fourth quarter





http://english-courses-level.com/english-beginners-level-videos/page/3




Phrasal Verbs 2





26) drop out of
to stop attending school for example or taking part يتوقف عن الحضور لى المدرسة مثلا (يترك المدرسة) أو يتوقف عن المشاركة
He dropped out of ordinary society because it was driving him mad

27) face up to
admit to; take responsibility for يعترف أو يتحمل مسؤولية
Sooner or later, you'll have to face up to the fact that you're failing it

28) fall through
not happen for something that was planned لم يحدث شيء كان مخططا له
We had originally intended to go to Mexico for our vacation, but our trip fell through when I got sick

29) figure out
to understand; solve يفهم أو يحل أو يعرف الحل عن طريق البرهان
We couldn't figure out where all the money had gone

30) fill up
to complete (a ********, list, etc.) by supplying missing or desired information يكمل وثيقة أو لائحة بتعبأة المعلومات الناقصة أو المطلوبة
ًWe had to fill up a form before we buy these machines

31) fill in
add information to a form يقوم بتعبأة معلومات
The office needs to know your home address and phone number. Could you fill them in on this form

32) fill in for
temporarily do someone else's work; temporarily substitute for another person يقوم بعمل لشخص آخر مؤقتا أو يأخذ مكان آخر مؤقتا
At school, we have to fill in for absent teachers

33) find out
discover information يكتشف أو يعرف معلومات
I didn't find out about the meeting until just a few minutes ago

34) get along with
have a friendly relationship with يقوم على علاقة جيدة بـ
Why can't you and your sister get along? Everyone else gets along with her just fine

35) get around
avoid having to do something يتجنب القيام بعمل ما
Teresa got around the required math classes by doing well on a math proficiency test

36) get away with
to accomplish without punishment يقوم بعمل خاطئ من دون التعرض لعقاب
Some people lie and cheat and always seem to get away with it

37) get back from
return from a place يرجع من مكان
We got back from Paris this morning

38) get in; get into
enter يدخل
She got in her car and drove away

39) get off
to leave (a train, plane, etc.); dismount from (a horse) ينزل من السيارة او القطار إلخ أو ينزل من على الحصان
When you get off the bus, cross the street and you will be there

40) get on
enter an airplane, a bus, a train, etc... يركب طائرة، باص، قطار،إلخ
He got on the train and waved for us to leave

41) get out of
escape having to do something يتهرب من القيام بعمل ما
Lisa said she had a terrible headache and got out of giving her speech today

42) get over
recover from an illness or painful experience يتغلب على مرض أو تجربة مؤلمة
She thought she would never get over feeling so stupid

43) get rid of
dispose of يتخلص من
That shirt is really ugly. Why don't you get rid of it

44) get through
to complete; finish ينجز أو ينهي
How he ever got through college is a mystery

45) get up
arise from bed, a chair بينهض من السرير أو بقوم عن الكرسي
You'll have to get up much earlier than usual tomorrow

46) give back
return an item to someone يعيد غرض لشخص ما
You haven't given back the books you borrowed from me

47) give up
stop trying يستسلم
He gave up trying to get an answer

48) go over
review or check carefully يراجع أو يفحص بدقة
Jack went over the paper checking for any spelling mistakes

49) go through
experience يعيش تجربة
Mary went through a lot of troubles

50) grow up
become an adult ينضج
behave as an adult, not a child يتصرف بعقلانية
Lee really irritates me sometimes. He's really silly and childish. I wish he would grow up





Phrasal Verbs 3


51) hand in
submit homework, an assignment, etc يسلم فرض أو واجب
You have to hand the report in at 8:30 tomorrow morning

52) hand out
distribute يوزع
The teacher handed out the test papers today

53) hang up
end a phone conversation by replacing the receiver ينهي مكالمة هاتفية بوضع السماعة في مكانها
I'd like to talk longer, but I'd better hang up. My sister needs to make a call

54) have to do with
be about يتعلق بـ
This class has to do with the behavior of people in groups

55) have on
wear يلبس
He had on his jacket and left

56) hold up
delay يأخر
I'm sorry I'm late. There was an accident on the freeway and traffic held me up

57) iron out
reach an agreement يصل إلى اتفاق
I know we disagree on lots of things, Susan, but we can iron them out

58) keep on
continue يتابع أو يستمر
I'm not ready to stop yet. I think I'll keep on working for a while

59) keep out of
not enter يمنع من الدخول
There is broken glass in the room so keep the child out of it

60) keep up with
stay at the same position or level
Internet addicts keep up with the newest updates

61) kick out
expel; force someone to leave يطرد او يجبر على المغادرة
Jim's club kicked him out because he didn't pay his dues or come to meetings

62) knock out
make unconscious يغيب عن الوعي
The boxing match ended when one boxer knocked the other one out

63) leave out
forget ينسى إضافة شيء
Oh, no! When I made the list of those who attended the meeting, I left your name out

64) let down
disappoint يخيب أمل
I know I let you down when I didn't do what I promised. I'm really sorry

65) look after
take care of يعتني
The babysitter had to look after the baby for two hours

66) look back on
remember يفكر في الماضي
When they looked back on their many years together, they realized that their marriage had been a very happy one

67) look down on
hold in contempt ينظر إلى على أنه أدنى، يستحقر
He seems to look down on anyone who doesn't like the same things that he does

68) look forward to
anticipate pleasantly تطلع إلى أو ينتظر بشوق
I'm really looking forward to vacation. I can't wait for it to begin

69) look into
investigate / get more details about something يتحقق أو يتأكد
Someone said there was a meeting at 9:30 but I haven't heard anything about it. Shall I look into it

70) look like
resemble يشبه
Does he look like his father or his mother

71) look out for
be careful يأخذ حذره أو ينتبه
He has to look out for his health

72) look over
to examine, esp. briefly يفحص
I think I may have some typos in this report. Could you look it over

73) look up
look for information in a reference book بحث عن ملومات في دليل
Look up the answer in the encyclopedia

74) look up to
to regard with admiration or respect ينظر باحترام و تقدير
A boy needs a father he can look up to

75) make up
invent (a يألف من نسج الخيال
Judy's story is hard to believe. I'm sure she made it up


Phrasal Verbs 4

76) make fun of
make jokes about يستهزئ أو يسخر
I agree that Bob looks ridiculous since he shaved his head, but don't make fun of him. You'll hurt his feelings

77) name after, name for
give a baby the name of someone else يطلق على طفل اسم لشخص لآخر
Jack was named after his uncle

78) pass away
die مات
I was very sorry to hear that your grandfather passed away

79) pass out
distribute يوزع
Everyone in the room needs one of these information sheets. Who will help me pass them out

80) pass out
faint; lose consciousness يغمى عليه أو يفقد الوعي
When Ella heard that she'd won a million dollars, she was so shocked that she passed out

81) pick out
choose; select يختار أو ينتقي
Billy's grandmother especially liked her birthday card because Billy had picked it out himself

82) pick up
lift; take up يرفع
Those books don't belong on the floor. Will you help me pick them up

83) point out
call attention to يلفت الانتباه إلى
She pointed out an error in our reasoning

84) pull over
drive a vehicle to the side of the road يقود إلى جانب الطريق
When the policeman indicated that I should pull over, I knew he was going to give me a ticket

85) put away
remove to a proper place ينقل إلى المكان المناسب
I just took these clothes out of the dryer. Will you help me put them away

86) put back
return to original place يعيد إلى مكانه الأساسي
Mom put back my books on the shelf after she finished cleaning

87) put off
postpone; delay يؤجل أو يؤخر
I keep asking for an appointment, but he keeps putting me off

88) put on
to wear يلبس
It's a little bit chilly outside. You'd better put a sweater on

89) put out
extinguish a cigarette يطفئ السيجارة
John had to put out the cigarette when he saw his father passing by his room

90) put up with
tolerate يتحمل
It's really important to come to work on time. The boss won't put up with tardiness

91) run into; across
meet by chance يلتقي صدفة
Yesterday at the supermarket, Jan ran into her former roommate. Before yesterday

92) run out of
finish a supply of something ينفذ من
On the way home from work, Art ran out of gas

93) set up
make arrangements for something يقوم بتدابير لشيء ما
You'll see Mr. Thomas tomorrow. I've set a meeting up for 9:30 AM

94) show up
arrive; appear يصل أو يظهر
The boss was very upset when you didn't show up for the meeting

95) stand for
represent يمثل
These letters seem to be an abbreviation. Do you know what they stand for

96) take after
resemble يشبه
Both my sister and I take after our father

97) take off
remove something you're wearing يخلع ملابسه
Please take your hat off when you go inside a building

98) take off
leave; depart يغادر أو يقلع
When does your plane take off

99) take up
begin a new activity or topic يبدأ نشاط أو هواية جديدة
I've never been skiing, but I think I'd like to take it up

100) tear down
destroy; demolish يدمر
The explosion tore down the whole building

101) tear up
to tear into small shreds يمزق إلى قطع صغيرة جدا
He tore up the drawings because she had criticized them

102) throw away
discard; put in the garbage يرمي في النفايات
You shouldn't throw those newspapers away; they're recyclable

103) throw up
vomit يتقيأ
Paul was so nervous about his job interview that he threw up just before he left for it

104) try on
wear something briefly to check its fit, how it looks يجرب ملابس
I'm not sure that jacket is large enough. May I try it on

105) turn down
decrease the volume خفض الصوت
Your music is giving me a headache! Please turn it down or use your headphones

106) turn down
refuse يرفض
I thought I could borrow some money from Joe, but when I asked, he turned me down

107) turn in
go to bed يذهب للنوم
I'm pretty tired. I guess I'll turn in

108) turn in
submit an assinment يسلم واجب
I've written my report, but I haven't turned it in

109) turn off
stop a machine يوقف آلة
I'm cold. Do you mind if I turn the air conditioner off

110) turn on
begin a machine يشغل آلة
It's cold in here. I'm going to turn the heater on

111) turn up
increase the volume يعلي الصوت
I can barely hear the TV. Can you turn it up a little

112) turn up
appear unexpectedly يظهر أو يأتي فجأة
We were all surprised when Pam turned up at the party. We didn't even know she was in town


هذه لائحة بمعظم Phrasal verbs أتمنى أن ينال الموضوع إعجابكم و يكون فيه إفادة لكم
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
الأفعال المركبة في اللغة الإنجليزية PHRASAL VERBS
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

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